Monthly Archives: August 2015

Abstract Little work has been reported in the literature to support k -nearest neighbor ( k -NN) searches/queries in hybrid data spaces (HDS)

An HDS is composed of a combination of continuous and non-ordered discrete dimensions. This combination presents new challenges in data organization and search ordering. In this paper, we present an algorithm for k -NN searches using a multidimensional index structure in hybrid data spaces.

We examine the concept of search stages and use the properties of an HDS to derive a new search heuristic that greatly reduces the number of disk accesses in the initial stage of searching. Further, we present a performance model for our algorithm that estimates the cost of performing such searches. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our… algorithm and the accuracy of our performance estimation model.

Highlights • Developed algorithm for searching multi-dimensional hybrid data spaces. • Introduced the method of improving search performance by examining search stages. • Suggested new search heuristic to improve initial stage of searching by 33%. • Derived theoretical model accurately predicts the performance of algorithm.

Both Mukaru Ng’ang’a and Anyang’ Nyong’o leave out very important theoretical and historical issues in their discussion of the Kenyan peasantry

The peasantry cannot be seen outside the totality of the social formation in which it is found. The peasantry, further, occupies a critical position in the transition to capitalism, a process which involves an equally transitory class of the peasantry called the middle peasantry. In Kenya, the emergence of this class, and its confusion with a peasant bourgeoisie, has been problematic.

As other sections of the peasantry have been impoverished, such categories as large scale/small scale production have not helped in clarifying issues. Instead, statistics have been used blindly to prove that better incomes are trickling down to the peasant producers… in the countryside, hence a healthy capitalist development with income re-distribution.

This essay argues that no such thing is taking place: there is a differentiation of the peasantry due to capitalist development in agriculture with the majority of the peasantry being reduced to owners of patches of land every day.